5.0 Measurement of Emissions from Mobile Sources
5.1 Support to Regulatory and Inventory Programs
5.2 Capacity Building and Technology Transfer
5.3 Support of Greener Technologies - Alternative/Reformulated Fuels and Alternative Propulsion Systems
5.4 Support of Greener Technologies - Development of Emission Control Technologies
5.1 Support to Regulatory and Inventory Programs
5.1.1 Compliance Audits, Emissions Testing and Investigations under CEPA Part 7 Division 5 and QA/QC Programs
With the new responsibility for emissions regulations for vehicles, engines,
and equipment under CEPA Part 7 Division 5, a new collaborative testing program
was initiated with the Transportation Systems Branch/EC. This program is
funded in part under the Ozone Annex of the Canada-US Air Quality Agreement.
As part of the program, the testing facilities at the ETC are being upgraded
over a four-year period in order to meet the future Tier-2 emissions regulations
for vehicles and engines. The plan included the implementation of new test
instrumentation, new test cell air handling systems, and the construction of
a new building for vehicle handling. The purpose of the laboratory testing
is to audit emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO),
oxides of nitrogen (NOX), particulate matter (PM), and evaporative total
hydrocarbons for compliance with the federal standards. In addition, this
testing allows fuel consumption to be accurately calculated and compared
with the values provided by the manufacturers.
The collaborative test program includes emissions testing of light-duty passenger
cars and trucks, utility engines (both hand-held and non-hand-held), outboard
marine engines, heavy-duty engines for on/off road and non-road applications,
and heavy-duty vehicles. During the past two years, the ETC conducted emissions
testing on 40 light-duty vehicles, 80 utility engines, 10 outboard marine engines,
and five motorcycles. The vehicle testing includes exhaust emission measurements
in the ETC Cold Temperature Vehicle Emissions Test Cell at -7°C and 24°C.
To support this work, the ETC participates in vehicle emissions testing and reference
gas cross-correlation programs with the major automobile manufacturers and with the
U.S. EPA. The ETC also provides test facilities and testing/engineering support to
joint industry/government investigations for non-compliant vehicles
5.1.2 Certification of Opacity Meters for Diesel Engine Testing
As a result of a collaborative program conducted with the Ontario government to
verify the operation of commercial opacity meters for diesel engines, the ETC
has developed expertise on the operation of opacity meters and the testing
methodologies for certification. The ETC is now recognized throughout North
America in this area. The following actions have resulted from the ETC
knowledge in this area:
5.1.3 Control of Idling Exhaust Emissions
- requests from various agencies and governments for information on certified instrumentation;
- requests from industry for certification testing; and
- invitations to attend workshops to discuss testing and instrumentation.
The idling of vehicles, both light-duty cars and trucks and heavy-duty buses and
trucks, results in increased concentrations of pollution. In urban areas, idling
contributes to the formation of ground-level ozone (smog) and adds toxic compounds
to the air. Some governments and agencies have adopted or are advocating maximum
idling times for vehicles in urban centres. To support this effort, the ETC
collaborated with NRCan to develop guidelines for the idling of vehicles under
various ambient temperatures while equipped with different emission control
5.1.4 Evaluation of Emission Control Devices and Additives
The ETC undertakes engineering evaluations and laboratory testing of products
that are marketed for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption from mobile
sources. This testing, which is done on a cost-recovery basis as a service to
inventors and distributors, is sometimes conducted as a joint project with a
government fleet operator to determine the effect of these products on the
emissions and fuel consumption of their vehicles. The ETC provides this technology
evaluation to a number of government organisations in the National Capital Region
and the Regions. Operators of a number of other government fleets, e.g., Ottawa-
Carleton Transit Authority, Canada Post, and the RCMP also refer to the ETC's
expertise in this area when discussing products with distributors and inventors.
During this reporting period, the ETC conducted extensive testing on the Platinum
Vapour Injection (PVI) device in support of government action to substantiate the
claims used by the distributor/inventor for marketing. The result of this work
led to legal investigation of the product.
5.1.5 Marine Vessel Exhaust Emissions Program
Ferry in Southern BC
In collaboration with industry and the Transport Canada Strategic Development
Centre, the ETC initiated Phase II of the Marine Vessel Exhaust Emissions program
to evaluate and demonstrate potential technologies for both propulsion and
auxiliary marine engines. From April 2000 to March 2001, laboratory-scale
evaluations were conducted on three technologies/concepts.
The emissions and performance were measured on a mechanical fuel-injected engine
operating on four fuel emulsions of water, diesel, and a proprietary surfactant
over the range of 5% to 20% water.
The engine was operated over the International Maritime Organization (IMO) propeller
curve that simulates the main propulsion engines of marine vessels. The results
indicated a potential for reducing both NOX and particulate mass emissions by 30%
each. A second technology included water injection using computer-controlled
injection with multiple injectors installed in the air intake manifold. The
third technology consisted of pressure-controlled nozzles for water injection
at three points in the intake air manifold. The later is being developed for
demonstration on a small container vessel that operates in the St. Lawrence River
and Gulf of St. Lawrence. The device installation and emissions testing is planned
for the next fiscal year.
5.1.6 Exhaust Emission Measurements from an Oceanic Container Vessel
As part of a larger program with Transport Canada, the ETC set up emissions
sampling instrumentation on the M.V. Cabot, an oceanic container vessel that
operates on a weekly basis from Montreal to St. John's and back. Exhaust emissions
were measured between Montreal and Trois-Rivières. The data gathered from this
project are to be used as the base point for developing a technology for reducing
5.1.7 Conversion of On-road Diesel Engines for Marine Vessel Applications
BC Detroit Diesel Co. developed a new marine propulsion engine based on the
Detroit Diesel two-stroke 6V92 engine, a common engine used for powering urban buses.
The ETC provided exhaust emissions testing support to this company for certification
purposes by conducting NOX emissions measurements with the engine operating over the
IMO propeller curve for propulsion engines. The test information was submitted to
Transport Canada for certification
5.1.8 Pollution from Utility Engines/Recreational Vehicles
Research and development on new fuels for on- and off-road internal combustion
engines can result in large expenditures for small volumes of fuel. In a program
to reduce the necessity for these costs, Advanced Engine Technologies Inc. developed
a small-engine displacement test bed for fuels analysis for laboratory research purposes.
The ETC provided support to the final stages of the development of this test bed by
conducting verification exhaust emissions testing on this system.
5.1.9 Determination of Exhaust Emissions at the CFB Goose Bay during Specified Flight Traffic Conditions
In 2001, DND-Goose Bay Office (GBO) approached the ETC with concerns about the impact
of aircraft operations on the air quality surrounding the Goose Bay aerodrome.
As a result, the ETC performed a field study at the CFB Goose Bay aerodrome to
measure air contaminants at various geographic locations at the Goose Bay airport
during specified flight traffic conditions. This study's goal was to determine the
magnitude of exhaust emission levels in the ambient air surrounding the CFB Goose
Bay aerodrome. As the objective was to assess a 'worst case' scenario, the sample
collection was focused on the peak low-level flying training sessions, which lasted
from 1 to 2 hours. It is anticipated that this study will lead to more detailed
studies, i.e., increasing the quantity of contaminants measured, speciating the
emissions components, increasing the sampling sites, and/or measuring exhaust
emissions directly from military aircraft. A final report is to be completed during
5.1.10 Mobile Source Emission Measurements at the Vancouver Cassiar Tunnel
The ETC led a study in August 2001 at the Cassiar Tunnel in Vancouver as part of
the partially 1PERD -funded particulate matter emissions research. This tunnel study
is an integral part of a larger ambient air study called "PACIFIC 2001" coordinated
by the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC). PACIFIC 2001 has been accepted as an
official 2NARSTO project, meaning that the data generated during this study will be
submitted to the NARSTO data centre.
Contributors to this program include:
- Canadian Petroleum Products Institute;
- Greater Vancouver Regional District;
- University of British Columbia;
- EC Pacific & Yukon Region; and
- EC Transportation Systems Branch.
This tunnel study was more advanced than previous ones: in the scope of measured
compounds; in obtaining more definitive vehicle fleet characterisation data; in
including remote sensing measurements of the emissions of each vehicle as it passes
through the tunnel; and, most importantly, in the way measured concentrations are
converted to mass emission rates.
This study will allow the ETC to draw links to an earlier PERD-funded study conducted
in Vancouver to measure PM emissions from in-use vehicles using conventional laboratory
vehicle emissions measurement methods.
Particulate Sampling at the Cassiar Tunnel
1 PERD - Panel on Energy Research and Development, an NRCan-funded federal research program.
2 NARSTO is the North American Research Strategy on Tropospheric Ozone - a joint Canada/U.S./Mexico research effort.
Particulate Sampling at the Cassiar Tunnel
5.2 Capacity Building and Technology Transfer
5.2.1 Support to Capacity Building in Colombia
The objective of this project is to demonstrate that converting two-stroke engine
autorickshaws to operate on compressed natural gas reduces emissions of particulate
matter, smog precursors, and carbon monoxide, while significantly decreasing
operating costs. In conjunction with its partnering institutions in Pakistan
and a Canadian company, the ETC has successfully demonstrated two-stroke autorickshaws
in three cities, trained 15 auto mechanics, and worked with Pakistan Environmental
Protection Agency (PEPA) staff in emissions testing.
5.2.2 Collaboration with the Association of Latin American and Caribbean Oil Companies (ARPEL)
The ETC is working with ARPEL member companies to investigate potential fuel quality
improvements and emission control system upgrades that provide the most cost-effective
emission benefits. This must be done taking into consideration the current and future
needs of the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) fleet, such as the level of vehicle
maintenance and the direction of government policy in the region. Activities were
defined at an inception mission in November 2001 as:
- evaluating emission and fuel standards for new and in-use vehicles;
- investigating the impacts of emissions on vehicle technology; and
- examining LAC fleets in four urban centres to determine real-world emissions factors through on-board emissions measurement.
5.2.3 Demonstration of Technology to Operate Two-stroke Autorickshaws on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in Pakistan
The objective of this project is to demonstrate that converting two-stroke
engine autorickshaws to operate on compressed natural gas reduces emissions
of particulate matter, smog precursors, and carbon monoxide, while significantly
decreasing operating costs. In conjunction with its partnering institutions
in Pakistan and a Canadian company, the ETC has successfully demonstrated
two-stroke autorickshaws in three cities, trained 15 auto mechanics, and
worked with Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (PEPA) staff in emissions
5.2.4 Capacity Building with the Bangladesh Department of Environment
The ETC is providing technical support to a team of Canadian companies working
with the Bangladesh Department of Environment (DOE) to enhance the DOE capacity
to effectively address local and global environmental issues. Activities under
this Bangladesh Environmental Management Project (BEMP) include a technology
demonstration program aimed at improving urban air quality by reducing exhaust
emissions from autorickshaws. Important aspects of this Urban Pollution Mitigation
Project (UPMP) include increasing the DOE capacity to manage technology evaluation
programs, improving its understanding of emissions from the transportation sector,
and developing potential strategies to control pollution from this sector.
The ETC responsibilities include working with Bangladesh DOE staff to perform the following:
- develop a preliminary study of the contribution of autorickshaws and other on?road emitters to air pollution;
- evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental impacts of CNG as a fuel for two-stroke autorickshaws;
- undertake research at the ETC to quantify the emissions performance of the technology; and
- coordinate the technology demonstration of the conversion system with the participation of various stakeholders.
5.2.5 Technology and Knowledge Transfer with the Bangladesh Ministry of Energy
The ETC is leading an institutional strengthening project with the Ministry of Energy
and their State Gas Company (RPGCL). This technical assistance project focuses on achieving
clean air objectives and reduced greenhouse gases through the replacement of imported
gasoline and diesel with domestic natural gas, as well as improved maintenance of the
vehicle fleet resulting in lower emissions and improved fuel economy. Natural Resources
Canada will be partnering with Environment Canada during the implementation of this project.
The project activities include the transfer of the dynamometer system developed by the
ERMD and the establishment of a National Centre of Excellence for technology verification
in this sector. A significant amount of the training will be delivered through the
Canadian private sector.
5.2.6 Demonstration of Natural Gas Conversions of Motorcycles for the Egyptian Government
In collaboration with Industry Canada and a Canadian company, YugoTech Inc., the ETC is
providing technical expertise in the areas of exhaust emissions and testing for an
international program involving converting motorcycles in the Egyptian Government fleet
to natural gas. The project, funded by the federal Climate Change program, began in
November 1999. After the development of the prototype conversion, the Jawa motorcycle
was shipped to the ETC for exhaust emissions testing in both the gasoline production
configuration and with the natural gas fuel systems.
5.3 Support to Regulatory and Inventory Programs
5.3.1 Research on Alternative Fuels for Micro-turbines
The ETC has established a partnership with Carleton University's Mechanical Engineering
Department to conduct R&D on fuels for micro-turbines. A test cell equipped with a 600
HP eddy current brake has been set up and verification testing of the instrumentation
has been initiated.
The baseline turbine emissions testing and R&D work will begin in summer of 2003.
5.3.2 Diesel-Electric Hybrid 40 -Passenger Urban Bus
In 2001, emissions testing was conducted on an Orion VII diesel electric hybrid bus.
Emissions were measured in order to validate the BAE SYSTEMS Controls HybriDriveTM
Propulsion System control strategy on NOX production and to determine emission
rates using various particulate traps and fuel configurations. Five particulate
traps were tested with an ultra-low diesel fuel (30 ppm sulphur); two of the
traps were also tested using low sulphur diesel fuel (~380 ppm sulphur).
The bus emissions were also tested in a baseline configuration with a
straight exhaust pipe installed in place of the particulate trap and
ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel. This collaborative evaluation was
undertaken with support from Orion Bus Industries. Other project partners
included BAE SYSTEMS Controls and Cummins Inc.
The emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide
(CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and total particulate
matter (PM) were determined for the Orion VII hybrid bus over the Central Business
District (CBD) cycle. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was also measured and fuel economy
was calculated based on a carbon balance equation. The bus was also driven over
a simulated New York City transit bus-driving route at different ambient
temperatures (24°C, 0°C, and -15°C). Engine and exhaust temperatures were
recorded to determine the effect of the control strategy at varying ambient
Future work includes emissions testing of the BAE SYSTEMS Controls HybriDriveTM
Propulsion System control strategy on another urban transit bus and a delivery truck.
5.3.3 Compressed Natural Gas Urban Transit Buses
In partnership with the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA), the
ETC performed emissions testing on three New Flyer CNG buses housing
1999 DDC Series 50G engines. Exhaust emissions were measured while the
buses were operated over the Central Business District (CBD) and New York Bus
(NYBUS) chassis dynamometer drive cycles.
Full exhaust speciation was performed, which included analysis for the
following compounds: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides
of nitrogen (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total hydrocarbons (THC),
particulate matter (PM), soluble organic fraction (SOF), organic carbon/elemental
carbon (OC/EC), particle phase sulphate (SO4), sulphur dioxide (SO2),
carbonyl compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane and light
hydrocarbon compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and
nitro-PAH. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
(NYSDEC) conducted particle sizing and distribution analysis. A final
report is to be completed in 2002/2003.
5.3.4 Conversion of a Stationary Gasoline Engine to Propane
The ETC provided cost-recovered emissions and performance testing support to
Engine Control Systems (ECS) of Lubrizol Canada for their submission to California
Air Resources Board (ARB) for a new stationary engine configuration. ECS
developed a computer-controlled fuel system to convert a large displacement
gasoline-powered spark ignition engine for stationary applications. The ETC
conducted testing as per the certification requirements of ARB.
5.3.5 Low-blend Ethanol Fuels
Due to the increased use of low-blend ethanol fuels (2 to 10% ethanol), a program
was initiated with the Transportation Systems Branch to study the effect of the
emissions and performance of new model vehicles when the percentage of ethanol in
the blend is increased from 15 to 30%. Three vehicles were tested at the ETC
laboratory with the higher ethanol blends at standard temperature (25°C) and at
cold temperature (-18°C). Emissions reductions were found with CO2, NOX, and CO,
though carbonyls were significantly increased. A final report is being prepared
on this work.
5.3.6 Conversion of Canada Post Vehicles to Hybrid EVs
As part of a Canada Post environmental and energy efficiency program, a number
of Grumann small delivery vans were being converted from gasoline operation to
a hybrid - electric vehicle platform. To support the optimisation of the hybrid
technology and determine the environmental and energy impacts, chassis dynamometer
tests were conducted on both configurations. Exhaust emissions and energy consumption
were measured for both types of vehicles.
5.4 Support of Greener Technologies - Development of Emission Control Technologies
5.4.1 Durability of Heavy-duty Diesel Engine Oxidation Catalysts/Particulate Traps
To demonstrate and verify the effectiveness of aftermarket exhaust emission control
technologies on industrial off-road equipment, the ETC participated in a test
program with Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) in Boston.
Construction equipment, such as bulldozers and earthmovers, used in the building
of the tunnel under the centre of the city, referred to as the "Big Dig", were equipped
with flow through diesel catalysts and particulate filters. These units, before
being installed, were tested for exhaust emissions on a heavy-duty diesel engine test
bed at the ETC. After a minimum of one year of operation, the units are to be
removed and returned to the ETC for durability emissions testing.
5.4.2 Heavy-duty Diesel Engine Oxidation Catalysts/Particulate Traps
Emissions testing was performed on two heavy-duty diesel engines, model year 2000
Cummins ISM 280 and 2000 International DT 466, using an ultra-low sulphur fuel
(15 ppm sulphur) and an Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR) system combined with a
Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRTTM). The project partners, Johnson
Matthey Inc. of U.S. and STT-Emtech of Sweden, provided the emission control devices.
EGR is known to reduce emissions of NOX by taking a portion of the exhaust and
redirecting it into the engine air intake, thereby reducing the oxygen and
increasing the heat capacity of the combustion mixture. In this system, the
re-circulated exhaust gas has passed through the CRTTM that has demonstrated
the capacity to reduce PM, CO, and HC.
The work involved mapping the engines at different speeds and loads and setting the
EGR rate at each of these map points by adjusting the EGR valve position.
The EGR set points were then loaded into the engine's electronic control unit.
The control unit automatically adjusts the EGR rate over the engine's entire
operating conditions. This system is now being demonstrated in the field in
California on a dump truck and transit bus. Future work may include testing
this device on different engine types with different fuels.
Cummins ISM 280 Engine with STT Emtech Inlet return valve
Cummins ISM 280 Engine with Johnson Matthey Inc. CRTTM
5.4.3 Evaluation of PM and NOX Emission Control Systems for Non-road Diesels
This project, led by the City of Houston, is one of the first programs of its
type undertaken by a major municipality to assess the pollution contribution
of its in-use fleet to the overall air quality of the region. The project is
unique in that it examined the emissions from various mobile sources while
these engines were operated in the field under real-world conditions.
Previous to this program, similar efforts have focused primarily on emission
measurements under controlled laboratory conditions. During the testing in
Houston, the mass emission rates of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon
dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter were determined for a
range of vehicles and engines from the City fleet. The emission rates were
determined while the vehicles and engines were operated over cycles that
were representative of their typical operation, using a portable emissions
analysis system developed by the ETC. Each vehicle was tested in its
original configuration, as well as after the installation or implementation
of selected emission control technologies that were designed to reduce
particulate matter as well as oxides of nitrogen.
The overall program was designed to evaluate a cross-section of technologies
on a range of vehicles and produce results that could be used by the Region
and other stakeholders to evaluate the emission reduction potential and
cost-effectiveness of various air quality strategies. An additional benefit
or output of the program is that the baseline data can also be used to fine-tune
existing emission inventories with real-world emission factors.
In summary, the technical objectives of the test program, a 50-75% reduction in
NOX and 25-33% reduction in particulate emissions, were shown to be achievable
with retrofit technologies for in-use diesel- powered vehicles. Widespread
application of some of these technologies may be possible at this time, while
other systems may require further engineering and verification.
5.4.4 Reduction of Exhaust Emissions from Urban Buses
Particulate traps for diesel engines were first successfully developed for
mining applications. The technology has now been adapted for on-road applications
with the focus on urban buses. Johnson Matthey Inc., a manufacturer of
particulate traps, has developed a new technology that continually regenerates
and clears the particulates that adhere to the substrate. To demonstrate
this Continuous Regenerating Technology (CRTTM), the New York State Department
of Environmental Conservation, the New York City Transit Authority, Johnson
Matthey Inc., Equilon Enterprises, Sprague Inc., Corning Inc., and the ETC
participated in a program in which four buses from the New York City Transit
Authority were equipped with this technology for approximately one year.
The ETC provided the laboratory exhaust emissions testing to evaluate the
performance of the trap in a baseline condition and after extensive use.
During the exhaust emissions testing, the ETC measured regulated compounds,
VOCs, carbonyls, and PAH while the State of New York conducted particle
sizing and distribution analysis. Two papers were published by the
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) detailing this work: SAE 2001-01-0511
and SAE 2002-01-0430. Future work for 2002/2004 includes a fuels matrix t
esting on a DDC Series 50 engine and emissions testing of New York Transit
buses housing DDC 6V92 engines.